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There are a ton of PHP libraries, frameworks, and components to choose from. Your project will likely use several of them — these are project dependencies.
Until recently, PHP did not have a good way to manage these project dependencies. Even if you managed them manually, you still had to worry about autoloaders. That is no longer an issue. Composer is the recommended dependency manager for PHP. Composer is analogous to NPM in the node. There is a plethora of PHP libraries that are compatible with Composer and ready to be used in your project.
The safest way to download composer is by following the official instructions. This will verify the installer is not corrupt or tampered with. The installer installs a composer. We recommend installing Composer globally e.
PHP Cheat Sheet
To do so, run this command next:. Note: If the above fails due to permissions, prefix with sudo. You can manage it by hand if you like, or use Composer itself.
Alternatively, the composer init command will guide you through creating a full composer. Composer creates a file called composer. If you share your project with others, ensure the composer. To update your dependencies, run composer update. This is most useful when you define your version requirements flexibly. To receive notifications about new version releases you can sign up for libraries. The Security Advisories Checker is a web service and a command-line tool, both will examine your composer.
Composer can also handle global dependencies and their binaries. Usage is straight-forward, all you need to do is prefix your command with global.
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It behaves similarly to Composer, but has some notable differences. PEAR requires each package to have a specific structure, which means that the author of the package must prepare it for usage with PEAR. Using a project which was not prepared to work with PEAR is not possible.
PEAR installs packages globally, which means after installing them once they are available to all projects on that server. This can be good if many projects rely on the same package with the same version but might lead to problems if version conflicts between two projects arise. You can install PEAR by downloading the. The PEAR documentation has detailed install instructions for every operating system.
If you are using Linux, you can also have a look at your distribution package manager. Debian and Ubuntu, for example, have an apt php-pear package. If the package is listed on the PEAR packages list , you can install it by specifying the official name:. If the package is hosted on another channel, you need to discover the channel first and also specify it when installing.
See the Using channel docs for more information on this topic. This example will install code from pear2. Then the require section will prefix the package name like this:. When this code is installed it will be available in your vendor directory and automatically available through the Composer autoloader:. PHP is a vast language that allows coders of all levels the ability to produce code not only quickly, but efficiently.
To help combat this common issue, this section is aimed at reminding coders of the basic coding practices within PHP. PHP has a class named DateTime to help you when reading, writing, comparing or calculating with date and time. There are many date and time related functions in PHP besides DateTime, but it provides nice object-oriented interface to most common uses.
It can handle time zones, but that is outside this short introduction. To start working with DateTime, convert raw date and time string to an object with createFromFormat factory method or do new DateTime to get the current date and time. Use format method to convert DateTime back to a string for output.
Calculating with DateTime is possible with the DateInterval class. DateTime has methods like add and sub that take a DateInterval as an argument. Do not write code that expect same number of seconds in every day, both daylight saving and timezone alterations will break that assumption. Use date intervals instead. To calculate date difference use the diff method. It will return new DateInterval, which is super easy to display. One last example to demonstrate the DatePeriod class.
It is used to iterate over recurring events. It can take two DateTime objects, start and end, and the interval for which it will return all events in between. It inherits everything in the DateTime class, so involves minimal code alterations, but extra features include Localization support, further ways to add, subtract and format a DateTime object, plus a means to test your code by simulating a date and time of your choosing. When you are building your application it is helpful to use common patterns in your code and common patterns for the overall structure of your project.
Using common patterns is helpful because it makes it much easier to manage your code and lets other developers quickly understand how everything fits together. If you use a framework then most of the higher level code and project structure will be based on that framework, so a lot of the pattern decisions are made for you.
But it is still up to you to pick out the best patterns to follow in the code you build on top of the framework. Right now PHP does not support Unicode at a low level.
Security: Authorization | The Definitive Guide to Yii | Yii PHP Framework
However, most string functions, like strpos and strlen , do need special consideration. If you forget even just once, your Unicode string has a chance of being garbled during further processing. Explicitly defining the encoding of your strings in every script will save you a lot of headaches down the road. Additionally, many PHP functions that operate on strings have an optional parameter letting you specify the character encoding. You should always explicitly indicate UTF-8 when given the option. For example, htmlentities has an option for character encoding, and you should always specify UTF-8 if dealing with such strings.
Note that as of PHP 5. This will use mbstring if it is available, and fall back to non UTF-8 functions if not. See example code below. This is critically important. Note that you must use the utf8mb4 character set for complete UTF-8 support, not the utf8 character set!
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See Further Reading for why. Today, it is common to set the character set in the HTTP response header like this:. Disclaimer for newcomers: i18n and l10n are numeronyms, a kind of abbreviation where numbers are used to shorten words - in our case, internationalization becomes i18n and localization, l10n. This way is, however, hardly recommended for serious projects, as it poses some maintenance issues along the road - some might appear in the very beginning, such as pluralization. The most classic way and often taken as reference for i18n and l10n is a Unix tool called gettext.
It dates back to and is still a complete implementation for translating software. It is easy enough to get running, while still sporting powerful supporting tools. It is about Gettext we will be talking here. Also, to help you not get messy over the command-line, we will be presenting a great GUI application that can be used to easily update your l10n source. There are common libraries used that support Gettext and other implementations of i18n. Some of them may seem easier to install or sport additional features or i18n file formats.
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In this document, we focus on the tools provided with the PHP core, but here we list others for completion:. Other frameworks also include i18n modules, but those are not available outside of their codebases:. If you decide to go for one of the libraries that provide no extractors, you may want to use the gettext formats, so you can use the original gettext toolchain including Poedit as described in the rest of the chapter. You might need to install Gettext and the related PHP library by using your package manager, like apt-get or yum.
Here we will also be using Poedit to create translation files. There are three files you usually deal with while working with gettext. There are some cases, in big projects, where you might need to separate translations when the same words convey different meaning given a context. In those cases, you split them into different domains. In Symfony projects, for example, domains are used to separate the translation for validation messages. A locale is simply a code that identifies one version of a language.
It is defined following the ISO and ISO alpha-2 specs: two lower-case letters for the language, optionally followed by an underline and two upper-case letters identifying the country or regional code.