Byzantium and the Modern Greek Identity
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Related Searches. A-Z Of Modern Europe, An A-Z of Modern Europe is a comprehensive dictionary which defines modern Europe through its important events and people. View Product. Confucius and the Modern World. This book represents the cutting edge of theoretical works on Confucianism.
Dialogos: Hellenic Studies Review.
Dialogos encompasses Greek language and literature, Greek history and archaeology, Greek culture and thought, present Dialogos encompasses Greek language and literature, Greek history and archaeology, Greek culture and thought, present and past: a territory of distinctive richness and unsurpassed influence. It seeks to foster critical awareness and informed debate about the ideas, events and achievements Freud in Zion: Psychoanalysis and the Making of.
In this ground-breaking In this ground-breaking study psychoanalyst and historian Eran Rolnik explores the encounter between psychoanalysis, Judaism, Modern Hebrew culture and the Zionist revolution in a unique political and cultural The Making of Modern Lithuania.
This book argues that - contrary to contemporary Lithuanian nationalist rhetoric - Lithuanian nationalism was This book argues that - contrary to contemporary Lithuanian nationalist rhetoric - Lithuanian nationalism was modern and socially constructed in the period from the emergence of the Lithuanian national movement in the late nineteenth century to the birth of an Greek cuisine has a long tradition and its flavors change with the season and its geography. Ancient Greek cuisine was characterized by its frugality and was founded on the "Mediterranean triad": wheat , olive oil , and wine , with meat being rarely eaten and fish being more common.
Greece has a culinary tradition of some 4, years.
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The Byzantine cuisine was similar to the classical cuisine including however new ingredients that were not available before, like caviar, nutmeg and lemons, basil, with fish continuing to be an integral part of the diet. Culinary advice was influenced by the theory of humors, first put forth by the ancient Greek doctor Claudius Aelius Galenus. The modern Greek cuisine has also influences from the Ottoman and Italian cuisine due to the Ottoman and Venetian dominance through the centuries.
Greece is one of the oldest wine - producing regions in the world.
The earliest evidence of Greek wine has been dated to 6, years ago   where wine was produced on a household or communal basis. In ancient times, as trade in wine became extensive, it was transported from end to end of the Mediterranean; Greek wine had especially high prestige in Italy under the Roman Empire. In the medieval period, wines exported from Crete , Monemvasia and other Greek ports fetched high prices in northern Europe.
Education in Greece is compulsory for all children 6—15 years old; namely, it includes Primary Dimotiko and Lower Secondary Gymnasio Education. The school life of the students, however, can start from the age of 2. In some Vrefonipiakoi Stathmoi there are also Nipiaka Tmimata nursery classes which operate along with the Nipiagogeia kindergartens.
These Institutes are not classified as an educational level, because they accept both Gymnasio lower secondary school and Lykeio upper secondary school graduates according to the relevant specializations they provide. Students are admitted to these Institutes according to their performance at national level examinations taking place at the third grade of Lykeio. Additionally, students are admitted to the Hellenic Open University upon the completion of the 22 year of age by drawing lots.
Nea Dimokratia New Democracy , the Greek conservative right political party, has claimed that it will change the law so that private universities gain recognition. Without official recognition, students who have an EES degree are unable to work in the public sector. However, their academic status still remains a problem. The issue of full recognition is still an issue of debate among Greek politicians. The Institute of Entrepreneurship Development iED is a Greek Non-governmental organization formed for the promotion of innovation and for enhancing the spirit of entrepreneurship intending to link with other European initiatives.
The origins of Western literature and of the main branches of Western learning may be traced to the era of Greek greatness that began before BC with the epics of Homer , the Iliad and the Odyssey. Hesiod , the first didactic poet, put into epic verse his descriptions of pastoral life, including practical advice on farming, and allegorical myths.
The poets Alcaeus of Mytilene , Sappho , Anacreon , and Bacchylides wrote of love, war, and death in lyrics of great feeling and beauty. Pindar celebrated the Panhellenic athletic festivals in vivid odes. The fables of the slave Aesop have been famous for more than 2, years. Aristophanes , the greatest author of comedies, satirized the mores of his day in a series of brilliant plays. Three great historians were Herodotus , regarded as the father of history, known for The Persian Wars ; Thucydides , who generally avoided myth and legend and applied greater standards of historical accuracy in his History of the Peloponnesian War; and Xenophon , best known for his account of the Greek retreat from Persia, the Anabasis.
Outstanding literary figures of the Hellenistic period were Menander , the chief representative of a newer type of comedy; the poets Callimachus , Theocritus , and Apollonius Rhodius , author of the Argonautica ; and Polybius , who wrote a detailed history of the Mediterranean world. Noteworthy in the Roman period were Strabo , a writer on geography; Plutarch , the father of biography, whose Parallel Lives of famous Greeks and Romans is a chief source of information about great figures of antiquity; Pausanias , a travel writer; and Lucian , a satirist.
The leading philosophers of the period preceding Greece's golden age were Thales , Pythagoras , Heraclitus , Protagoras , and Democritus.
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Socrates investigated ethics and politics. His greatest pupil, Plato , used Socrates' question-and-answer method of investigating philosophical problems in his famous dialogues. Plato's pupil Aristotle established the rules of deductive reasoning but also used observation and inductive reasoning, applying himself to the systematic study of almost every form of human endeavor.
Outstanding in the Hellenistic period were Epicurus , the philosopher of moderation; Zeno of Citium , the founder of Stoicism; and Diogenes of Sinope , the famous Cynic. The oath of Hippocrates , the father of medicine, is still recited by newly graduating physicians.
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Euclid evolved the system of geometry that bears his name. Archimedes discovered the principles of mechanics and hydrostatics. Eratosthenes calculated the earth's circumference with remarkable accuracy, and Hipparchus Founded scientific astronomy. Galen was an outstanding physician of ancient times.
The sculptor Phidias created the statue of Athena and the figure of Zeus in the temple at Olympia and supervised the construction and decoration of the Parthenon. Another renowned sculptor was Praxiteles. The legal reforms of Solon served as the basis of Athenian democracy. The Athenian general Miltiades the Younger led the victory over the Persians at Marathon in BC, and Themistocles was chiefly responsible for the victory at Salamis 10 years later. Pericles , the virtual ruler of Athens for more than 25 years, added to the political power of that city, inaugurated the construction of the Parthenon and other noteworthy buildings, and encouraged the arts of sculpture and painting.
Culture of Greece
With the decline of Athens, first Sparta and then Thebes, under the great military tactician Epaminondas , gained the ascendancy; but soon thereafter, two military geniuses, Philip II of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great , gained control over all of Greece and formed a vast empire stretching as far east as India. It was against Philip that Demosthenes , the greatest Greek orator, directed his diatribes, the Philippics.
The most renowned Greek painter during the Renaissance was El Greco , born in Crete , whose major works, painted in Spain, have influenced many 20th-century artists. An outstanding modern literary figure is Nikos Kazantzakis , a novelist and poet who composed a vast sequel to Homer's Odyssey.
Leading modern poets are Kostis Palamas , and Constantine P. Cavafy , as well as George Seferis , and Odysseus Elytis , winners of the Nobel Prize for literature in and , respectively.