Biology of the Antarctic Seas VII

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Circumpolar Deep Water CDW is a relatively warm, salty and nutrient-rich water mass that flows onto the continental shelf at certain locations in the Ross Sea. Through heat flux, this water mass moderates the ice cover.

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The near-surface water also provides a warm environment for some animals and nutrients to excite primary production. CDW transport onto the shelf is known to be persistent and periodic, and is thought to occur at specific locations influenced by bottom topography. The circulation of the Ross Sea is dominated by a wind-driven gyre. The flow is strongly influenced by three submarine ridges that run from southwest to northeast. Flow over the shelf below the surface layer consists of two anticyclonic gyres connected by a central cyclonic flow.

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The flow is considerable in spring and winter, due to influencing tides. The Ross Sea is covered with ice for much of the year and ice concentrations and in the south-central region little melting occurs. Ice concentrations in the Ross Sea are influenced by winds with ice remaining in the western region throughout the austral spring and generally melting in January due to local heating.

This leads to extremely strong stratification and shallow mixed layers in the western Ross Sea. The Ross Sea is one of the last stretches of seas on Earth that remains relatively unaffected by human activities. Consequently, the Ross Sea has become a focus of numerous environmentalist groups who have campaigned to make the area a world marine reserve, citing the rare opportunity to protect the Ross Sea from a growing number of threats and destruction.

The Ross Sea is regarded by marine biologists as having a very high biological diversity and as such has a long history of human exploration and scientific research, with some datasets going back over years. The Ross Sea is home to at least 10 mammal species, half a dozen species of birds, 95 species of fish, and over 1, invertebrate species. Marine mammals in the Ross Sea include the Antarctic minke whale , killer whale , Weddell seal , crabeater seal , and leopard seal. Antarctic toothfish , Antarctic silverfish , Antarctic krill , and crystal krill also swim in the cold Antarctic water of the Ross Sea.

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The flora and fauna are considered similar to other southern Antarctic marine regions. Particularly in Summer, the nutrient-rich sea water supports an abundant planktonic life in turn providing food for larger species, such as fish , seals , whales , and sea- and shore- birds. Albatrosses rely on wind to travel and cannot get airborne in a calm. The westerlies do not extend as far south as the ice edge and therefore albatrosses do not travel often to the ice-pack.

An albatross would be trapped on an ice floe for many days if it landed in the calm. A metre However, a document submitted to the CCAMLR reported significant declines in toothfish populations of McMurdo Sound coinciding with the development of the industrial toothfishing industry since , and other reports have noted a coincident decrease in the number of orcas.

The report recommended a full moratorium on fishing over the Ross shelf. In the southern winter of New Zealand scientists discovered the breeding ground of the Antarctic toothfish in the northern Ross Sea seamounts for the first time [54] underscoring how little is known about the species. The deal failed due to Russia voting against it, citing uncertainty about whether the commission had the authority to establish a marine protected area. The proposal was again blocked by Russia.

It protected over 1. However, a sunset provision of 35 years was inserted as part of negotiations, which means it does not meet the International Union for Conservation of Nature definition of a marine protected area, which requires it to be permanent.

The Bay of Whales is featured as the location for the landing point and base camp of an all-female explorer team in Ursula K. LeGuin's short story Sur. In the story, the women are the first people to reach the south pole, but keep their achievement a secret in order to save Amundsen from embarrassment. Media related to Ross Sea at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica. Archived from the original on 24 February Retrieved 23 February Deep Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts.

The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 October Retrieved 28 October Archived from the original on 11 March Retrieved 13 August Grant Oceanography: A view of the Earth 6 ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Submarine Geology 2 ed.


Archived PDF from the original on 15 July Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. Terra Antarctica. In Cooper, Alan K. Geology and Seismic Stratigraphy of the Antarctic Margin. American Geophysical Union. Cooper, Alan K. Houston, Tex. Hydrobiologia 1—9. Foregut morphology of Amphipoda Crustacea. An example of its relevance for systematics. Ophelia 36 2 : — A new Epimeria species Crustacea: Amphipoda: Epimeriidae and redescriptions of three other species in the genus from the Antarctic Ocean.

Journal of Natural History 28 3 : — Beaufortia 48 2 : 17— Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 74 2 : — Synopsis of the Amphipoda of the Southern Ocean. Taxonomy in times of the taxonomic impediment — Examples from the community of expert on amphipod crustaceans. Journal of Crustacean Biology 35 6 : — Revision of Iphimediidae and similar families Amphipoda: Gammaridea.

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Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 2 : — Amatiguakius forsbergi, a new genus and species from Alaska marine Amphipoda: Epimeriidae. Acanthonotozomella rauscherti Amphipoda, Acanthonotozomellidae , a new species from the Antarctic Ocean. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 2 : — Constable A. Chapter 9. Assessing status and change in Southern ocean ecosystems. Costa A. Ricerche sui crostacei amfipodi del regno di Napoli.

Memorie della Reale Accademia delle Scienze, Napoli 1: —, pls 1—4. Saggio della collezione de Crostacei del Mediterraneo. Curtis J. British entomology, being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland; containing coloured figures from nature of the most rare and beautiful species, and in many instances of the plants upon which they are found. Cuvier G. Tome 1. Contenant les organes du mouvement.

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Dana J. On the classification of the Crustacea Choristopoda or Tetradecapoda. The American Journal of Science and Arts ser. Dauby P. Amphipods as food sources for higher trophic levels in the Southern Ocean: a synthesis.

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